Enfermedades por exposición ocupacional a plomo: revisión sistemática exploratoria de la evidencia cualitativa y cuantitativa.

Adriana Ivette Fonseca Vera

Resumen

La intoxicación por plomo está circunscrita, al ámbito laboral y ambiental; generando una elevada morbimortalidad. El diagnóstico es de exclusión y muchas veces tardío, llegando incluso a producirse errores de presunción diagnóstica; justificándose la necesidad de realizar esta revisión sistemática exploratoria, la cual tuvo como objetivo: sintetizar la evidencia cualitativa y cuantitativa, referente a fuentes laborales de contaminación y manifestaciones clínicas y/o enfermedades por exposición ocupacional a plomo. Se realizó una búsqueda en cinco bases de datos electrónicas, para identificar literatura elegible, publicada en el período 2016 – 2020. Se incluyeron 60 artículos, de los cuales, 47 estudios señalaron la fuente laboral de contaminación por plomo; resaltándose las siguientes áreas: manufacturación de baterías (21,28%), campos de tiro (14,89%), mecánica automotriz (14,89%) y construcción (14,89%). Cuarenta artículos reportaron manifestaciones clínicas y/o enfermedades por exposición ocupacional a plomo. De estos estudios, la mayoría mencionaron alteraciones neurológicas (21,88%), hematológicas (12,5%), digestivas (10,94%) y psiquiátricas (10,94%). Finalmente, se concluye que las fuentes laborales de contaminación son amplias y abarcan aquellas industrias en las cuales se manipula plomo o sus compuestos. Las manifestaciones clínicas y/o enfermedades por exposición ocupacional a plomo incluyen un amplio espectro, sin evidenciarse un umbral “seguro” de concentración de plomo.

Palabras clave

Intoxicación ocupacional por plomo; saturnismo laboral.

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